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The 2017 Global Least & Most Stressful Cities Ranking

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Most and Least Stressful Cities

At Zipjet, we develop technology which aims to reduce stress in people's lives. Anxiety and stress have been pinpointed again and again as key factors contributing to the deterioration of mental health and quality of life. We undertook this study to find out how the most stressful cities around the world can benefit from the example of those cities least affected by stress.

Individuals feel stressed for different reasons, requiring our study to look at data from a macro level to determine the comprehensive well-being of a city’s population. We examined the overall mental health of a city, and then considered all of the major stress-inducing factors, including unemployment, debt per capita, traffic, public transport, security, pollution and density. We also considered elements such as lack of sunshine hours, which has been linked to poor mental health.

“Mental health problems are on the rise worldwide, with stress being a trigger and contributing factor towards this increase. We hope that by pinpointing how the least stressful cities are managing this issue, those cities struggling with a stressed out population can overcome it.” stated Managing Director of Zipjet, Florian Färber. “We’re happy to be a part of the wave of digitalization working to reduce stress all around the world.”

You can find the results below, ordered from least to most stressful cities. Individual criteria can be filtered by clicking each icon at the top of the table.

Legend
  • Density
  • Green Spaces
  • Public Transport
  • Traffic
  • Perception of Security
  • Sunshine Hours (av./year)
  • Air Pollution
  • Noise Pollution
  • Light Pollution
  • Unemployment
  • Debt per Capita
  • Family Purchase Power
  • Mental Health
  • Physical Health
  • Gender Equality
  • Race Equality
 
#
City Pollution Finance People
City Country Density Green Spaces Public Transport Traffic Perception of Security Sunshine Hours (av./year) Air Pollution Noise Pollution Light Pollution Unemployment Debt per Capita Social Security Family Purchase Power Mental Health Physical Health Gender Equality Race Equality Total
Stuttgart Germany 3.78 1.00 6.26 5.23 1.72 7.34 4.08 8.61 7.83 2.39 2.45 3.17 1.24 1.30 5.50 1.85 4.32 1.00
Luxembourg Luxembourg 1.06 1.18 3.66 2.03 2.09 9.21 3.42 9.82 9.40 6.50 4.08 1.18 1.06 1.00 2.05 5.05 1.60 1.13
Hannover Germany 3.17 2.03 6.26 3.66 2.51 8.19 3.17 1.36 7.83 4.38 2.45 3.17 1.91 1.24 5.50 2.69 3.72 1.19
Bern Switzerland 3.05 1.12 1.18 1.36 1.18 7.46 3.66 9.88 8.79 4.26 4.08 4.20 1.48 4.02 4.27 1.30 1.18 1.29
Munich Germany 5.71 3.72 2.33 4.20 1.24 7.16 2.99 9.15 7.83 1.72 2.45 3.17 1.00 2.03 5.50 1.79 4.32 1.31
Bordeaux France 4.86 1.67 2.15 1.97 1.12 4.50 2.56 1.12 6.50 8.31 4.77 3.27 1.30 1.06 5.05 2.74 2.32 1.45
Edinburgh United Kingdom 2.09 1.06 1.97 6.86 2.27 9.46 1.30 9.58 8.43 4.50 5.05 3.90 3.66 1.48 7.43 2.57 1.97 1.55
Sydney Australia 1.30 1.54 1.66 6.38 5.77 4.81 2.03 7.70 6.92 4.50 2.45 1.48 1.12 1.36 3.69 3.66 2.99 1.56
Graz Austria 2.45 3.11 3.23 3.66 1.42 6.86 4.20 7.40 4.56 5.17 3.66 1.66 4.38 1.12 4.86 6.32 4.62 1.69
Hamburg Germany 2.81 3.72 2.75 4.81 2.99 8.19 2.87 7.16 7.83 3.60 2.45 3.17 2.81 1.91 5.50 2.09 4.62 1.69
Zurich Switzerland 5.53 1.54 1.12 4.38 1.30 7.89 2.69 9.40 8.79 3.11 4.08 4.20 1.36 4.08 4.27 1.12 1.30 1.73
Seattle United States 3.90 5.95 7.95 5.23 2.57 6.56 1.06 6.19 5.59 3.48 3.42 7.10 2.67 2.51 5.97 4.74 1.00 1.81
Wellington New Zealand 2.69 1.79 1.36 5.23 2.21 6.35 1.24 9.28 4.44 5.59 3.42 6.62 1.78 4.14 7.84 1.06 4.99 1.95
Nice France 2.91 1.54 3.61 3.66 2.54 2.99 3.61 2.45 6.50 8.49 4.77 3.27 3.05 2.61 5.05 2.30 1.56 2.03
Dresden Germany 2.03 3.30 6.98 1.18 2.69 8.49 4.68 8.91 7.83 4.81 2.45 3.17 2.69 3.05 5.50 1.97 4.62 2.05
Auckland New Zealand 3.30 2.03 2.27 6.01 2.33 6.13 1.42 9.03 4.44 5.05 3.42 6.62 2.33 3.48 7.84 1.24 5.53 2.08
Oslo Norway 1.85 1.91 2.39 4.20 2.51 8.49 3.60 9.34 3.78 3.90 3.48 7.70 1.66 8.07 3.86 1.18 2.27 2.08
Helsinki Finland 3.60 1.91 2.21 2.45 2.15 7.34 2.39 4.40 5.65 7.77 4.26 3.27 3.05 3.96 1.88 1.54 2.75 2.23
Abu Dhabi UAE 1.60 9.58 7.77 1.48 1.00 1.18 9.28 6.56 9.34 2.87 3.42 4.02 2.57 4.26 4.39 8.97 7.83 2.27
Melbourne Australia 1.42 3.90 5.41 4.81 6.32 5.77 2.33 7.89 6.92 5.77 2.45 1.48 1.97 1.72 3.69 3.78 2.27 2.34
Düsseldorf Germany 3.48 4.32 6.26 2.09 2.63 9.40 4.38 9.52 7.83 4.81 2.45 3.17 3.90 2.15 5.50 2.03 3.30 2.39
Reykjavik Iceland 1.52 5.76 9.19 1.64 3.67 9.77 1.70 9.88 1.12 1.87 6.81 5.47 5.82 7.56 1.06 1.00 2.39 2.42
Kuwait City Kuwait 1.00 10.00 7.77 2.99 4.44 1.36 9.03 7.04 9.82 2.03 2.57 2.03 1.91 1.72 4.68 8.31 9.94 2.48
Montreal Canada 5.41 4.99 2.15 3.66 4.14 7.16 1.79 6.98 3.96 6.26 1.30 2.39 1.91 1.48 6.20 3.05 1.97 2.56
Leipzig Germany 2.21 3.11 3.42 1.00 3.66 7.89 3.23 10.00 7.83 5.89 2.45 3.17 4.26 2.99 5.50 1.72 3.30 2.60
Copenhagen Denmark 7.58 2.57 7.77 1.97 1.48 8.49 4.74 9.52 4.02 3.72 3.42 5.59 1.60 2.93 6.84 2.39 4.08 2.66
Dortmund Germany 2.27 4.99 2.99 1.60 4.32 9.82 3.96 7.28 7.83 5.05 2.45 3.17 3.36 3.36 5.50 2.21 4.08 2.69
Vancouver Canada 6.62 1.30 2.15 6.38 4.14 7.16 1.12 8.01 3.96 5.17 1.30 2.39 3.36 1.24 6.20 2.99 1.60 2.74
Cologne Germany 3.17 3.90 6.26 5.23 5.05 9.40 4.14 8.25 7.83 3.11 2.45 3.17 4.38 2.45 5.50 1.66 3.30 2.74
Amsterdam Netherlands 6.13 3.60 3.30 1.85 2.75 8.91 3.78 8.19 9.52 5.41 4.08 4.56 2.09 3.11 1.64 1.60 1.72 2.77
Leeds United Kingdom 1.91 2.57 6.98 2.45 5.47 9.70 3.05 2.57 8.43 5.65 5.05 3.90 5.17 1.79 7.43 3.11 2.21 2.82
Dubai UAE 1.24 9.21 7.77 3.66 2.39 1.18 9.21 4.99 9.34 2.87 3.42 4.02 4.56 4.56 4.39 8.85 8.37 2.95
Frankfurt Germany 3.78 4.99 6.26 2.99 5.41 8.91 4.81 3.42 7.83 4.26 2.45 3.17 1.91 4.32 5.50 1.91 3.72 3.03
Toronto Canada 4.87 3.11 1.42 4.20 4.87 6.13 1.48 7.52 3.96 6.74 1.30 2.39 2.87 2.93 6.20 2.87 1.97 3.08
Southampton United Kingdom 6.26 3.30 3.17 1.12 5.23 9.21 2.81 9.76 8.43 2.93 5.05 3.90 2.39 2.33 7.43 2.21 1.72 3.18
Boston United States 6.50 6.32 8.19 2.99 3.78 3.11 1.18 6.86 5.59 3.48 3.42 7.10 4.02 3.66 5.97 4.56 1.00 3.18
Vienna Austria 5.17 2.33 1.48 4.38 1.66 6.86 4.44 9.09 4.56 8.91 3.66 1.66 2.93 1.85 4.86 5.83 5.53 3.24
Geneva Switzerland 9.03 1.79 3.48 3.05 1.54 6.13 2.75 6.56 8.79 7.16 4.08 4.20 1.54 3.72 4.27 1.36 1.18 3.29
Monaco Monaco 9.46 4.50 1.66 1.85 3.48 6.19 1.54 1.06 9.58 1.48 5.83 6.26 1.18 5.53 1.29 6.01 2.99 3.32
San Francisco United States 7.83 4.99 9.21 6.38 4.68 1.97 1.85 3.78 5.59 2.87 3.42 7.10 2.69 3.84 5.97 4.38 1.00 3.32
Liverpool United Kingdom 5.23 1.54 1.72 4.20 4.38 9.70 1.36 8.55 8.43 4.81 5.05 3.90 4.14 3.54 7.43 2.45 2.27 3.47
Singapore Singapore 8.07 2.75 1.00 5.23 1.91 5.77 5.59 6.13 10.00 1.60 2.57 6.32 3.90 4.87 3.34 5.47 5.71 3.52
Bristol United Kingdom 4.62 1.30 4.56 5.23 5.65 9.21 2.15 8.91 8.43 2.87 5.05 3.90 5.11 3.36 7.43 3.17 1.72 3.53
Rotterdam Netherlands 3.66 3.11 2.45 1.42 4.26 8.91 3.84 8.13 9.52 6.98 4.08 4.56 2.45 5.47 1.64 1.48 3.72 3.55
Glasgow United Kingdom 4.74 1.66 3.72 3.66 5.11 9.88 3.72 7.83 8.43 5.41 5.05 3.90 3.66 2.63 7.43 2.69 2.15 3.55
San José Costa Rica 7.22 4.32 4.56 4.56 1.60 5.77 4.99 3.60 4.32 8.01 9.21 4.62 4.68 1.54 3.81 6.92 3.30 3.63
Berlin Germany 4.81 3.30 2.75 3.66 4.50 7.46 3.90 6.80 7.83 7.22 2.45 3.17 3.42 3.84 5.50 2.81 3.30 3.79
Stockholm Sweden 6.19 2.33 3.90 2.99 3.30 6.44 4.56 8.97 3.60 6.74 3.42 8.79 2.33 7.52 1.41 1.42 2.99 3.97
Montevideo Uruguay 7.46 8.49 3.96 5.53 2.03 2.57 4.50 5.65 2.57 6.98 7.28 6.13 3.96 3.36 2.17 7.10 5.89 4.03
Leicester United Kingdom 5.59 3.11 7.16 4.56 5.05 9.70 2.93 7.64 8.43 4.14 5.05 3.90 6.56 3.36 7.43 2.45 1.72 4.11
Prague Czech Republic 2.87 3.60 2.93 2.99 3.48 6.86 4.93 5.89 8.49 5.47 4.08 7.40 4.87 6.86 2.81 7.28 6.68 4.16
Strasbourg France 4.20 5.35 2.81 1.30 5.71 7.89 4.26 6.92 6.50 8.61 4.77 3.27 3.36 2.93 5.05 3.72 3.30 4.18
Montpellier France 4.32 5.89 4.32 1.06 5.65 2.99 2.63 5.17 6.50 9.09 4.77 3.27 2.03 4.56 5.05 3.42 4.62 4.19
Birmingham United Kingdom 4.93 1.66 1.36 2.45 6.74 9.70 2.21 6.07 8.43 7.10 5.05 3.90 4.81 2.09 7.43 2.09 2.27 4.21
Lyon France 6.08 4.50 4.32 3.66 4.81 6.13 3.36 4.93 6.50 7.46 4.77 3.27 2.21 4.62 5.05 3.96 4.62 4.27
Toulouse France 4.44 5.77 4.32 2.63 5.17 5.77 2.45 5.83 6.50 7.58 4.77 3.27 4.62 4.56 5.05 3.30 4.32 4.29
Madrid Spain 6.56 3.60 5.05 2.15 3.05 2.57 2.27 5.29 8.61 9.58 7.28 2.15 5.53 1.60 8.19 5.59 2.99 4.32
Washington, DC United States 2.56 1.89 6.76 3.66 7.91 3.90 1.97 6.21 5.59 3.11 3.42 7.10 5.95 5.64 5.97 5.35 5.87 4.32
Dublin Ireland 5.89 2.33 4.38 7.40 3.36 9.21 1.72 7.95 4.08 7.46 6.86 7.16 3.90 5.83 3.10 2.63 6.38 4.44
Doha Qatar 8.61 9.21 6.38 10.00 1.85 1.54 9.64 2.69 9.88 1.06 5.05 4.38 2.75 7.83 1.82 7.89 6.68 4.44
Taipei Chinese Taipei 8.61 8.13 1.06 6.86 1.97 8.19 6.52 7.75 4.60 3.48 3.66 9.46 2.99 6.83 2.11 7.77 5.71 4.65
Marseille France 4.38 6.92 5.83 6.86 8.31 3.36 5.47 3.05 6.50 8.49 4.77 3.27 2.21 2.69 5.05 3.42 4.08 4.66
Nantes France 4.73 5.77 1.24 1.24 5.83 6.44 2.51 6.56 6.50 7.77 4.77 3.27 3.90 4.93 5.05 4.68 4.32 4.66
Tel Aviv Israel 8.19 4.50 3.66 6.38 5.05 1.42 7.04 4.32 9.76 5.05 5.05 1.12 4.99 2.63 4.27 4.44 5.23 4.69
Manchester United Kingdom 5.65 1.54 3.17 6.01 7.95 10.00 2.09 5.77 8.43 6.13 5.05 3.90 4.20 2.75 7.43 2.33 2.75 4.71
Osaka Japan 6.38 8.49 1.97 4.44 1.06 5.23 5.77 4.62 6.68 3.72 5.77 8.43 5.65 8.31 2.93 8.43 9.58 4.81
Lisbon Portugal 7.28 4.99 5.29 5.65 2.93 1.97 1.60 8.43 8.85 8.91 8.61 5.89 4.74 3.42 4.51 5.05 5.23 4.89
Antwerp Belgium 3.05 2.75 5.17 4.20 5.35 8.91 4.87 2.75 9.70 6.13 4.26 9.03 6.98 7.52 1.64 6.38 2.27 4.90
Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei 1.79 7.46 5.11 6.13 6.13 2.15 6.68 9.76 8.91 6.74 1.00 2.21 8.73 4.81 2.29 7.46 1.48 4.90
London United Kingdom 6.68 3.60 2.93 6.86 6.50 9.40 3.48 5.05 8.43 5.29 5.05 3.90 3.36 5.47 7.43 2.87 2.99 4.95
Lille France 6.40 5.77 4.62 1.85 5.89 8.91 3.36 2.99 6.50 8.21 4.77 3.27 3.36 4.68 5.05 3.60 4.32 4.97
Tokyo Japan 7.16 6.92 1.97 2.45 1.36 6.13 5.29 6.62 6.68 2.87 5.77 8.43 5.95 8.61 2.93 8.49 9.64 5.06
Manama Bahrain 6.38 8.13 6.62 4.62 2.81 4.81 6.13 8.55 9.94 3.60 9.40 5.71 6.38 5.11 2.99 9.21 7.64 5.15
Hong Kong China 8.34 3.11 5.35 5.65 1.85 6.44 7.16 8.01 6.50 2.15 4.20 8.44 7.44 7.31 4.69 5.65 8.37 5.21
Muscat Oman 1.18 10.00 7.77 6.44 3.23 1.72 8.49 8.79 4.62 9.46 8.01 5.95 7.40 5.29 3.92 9.09 8.19 5.23
Santiago Chile 8.25 6.50 6.74 7.40 4.68 4.50 7.95 4.56 1.85 6.86 5.05 5.77 4.08 4.99 3.05 7.34 2.75 5.24
Panama City Panama 6.74 7.22 3.66 8.01 8.94 5.11 5.71 1.72 2.33 4.14 7.28 1.97 4.56 2.21 8.48 6.80 6.68 5.27
Paris France 9.76 4.99 4.44 6.01 6.26 7.16 5.11 2.39 6.50 7.95 4.77 3.27 3.66 2.27 5.05 3.23 2.27 5.31
St Petersburg Russia 4.50 5.35 4.87 7.16 6.38 8.91 5.05 7.10 1.97 1.36 8.01 8.67 5.65 9.34 3.28 6.62 7.89 5.32
Miami United States 6.01 6.50 5.89 4.20 8.01 2.33 1.00 5.95 5.59 4.04 3.42 7.10 6.74 6.62 5.97 4.74 2.27 5.45
Los Angeles United States 4.86 6.92 9.70 8.45 8.85 1.36 2.57 3.23 5.59 4.81 3.42 7.10 6.14 7.14 5.97 4.99 1.36 5.55
Nouméa New Caledonia 2.45 4.32 8.25 2.69 6.26 3.66 5.35 2.51 6.50 9.40 1.06 7.46 7.34 6.80 8.66 5.05 5.11 5.63
Chicago United States 5.47 6.32 7.65 2.45 9.15 3.90 3.11 4.81 5.59 4.53 3.42 7.10 5.47 7.52 5.97 4.26 1.36 5.69
New York United States 8.79 6.56 9.09 5.47 7.46 3.36 1.91 2.21 5.59 3.84 3.42 7.10 5.77 7.04 5.97 4.50 1.48 5.76
Barcelona Spain 9.40 6.32 4.87 4.38 3.84 4.50 4.02 2.15 8.61 9.58 7.28 2.15 6.68 1.97 8.19 5.53 4.99 5.79
Almaty Kazakhstan 2.69 8.13 9.94 5.35 7.64 4.81 6.98 8.31 1.72 5.59 7.52 9.40 6.98 7.83 1.76 3.42 7.46 5.81
Tianjin China 7.23 7.40 8.67 7.16 4.74 4.32 9.46 7.58 6.50 2.51 1.66 8.44 7.10 6.32 4.69 5.89 8.67 5.82
Kiev Ukraine 4.02 5.35 7.95 6.50 6.56 7.16 6.38 7.28 2.51 1.18 9.82 9.21 9.03 9.64 2.34 7.04 6.13 5.82
Rome Italy 2.95 2.75 9.15 6.86 7.58 4.14 5.17 3.84 9.03 8.67 8.01 2.51 6.01 6.13 1.99 7.64 4.62 5.84
Asunción Paraguay 5.29 6.92 5.29 8.85 6.44 2.81 6.01 3.36 2.21 5.77 8.25 6.50 8.43 6.50 8.25 6.26 4.08 5.89
Shanghai China 7.62 8.79 6.44 7.16 3.54 6.86 8.55 7.54 6.50 3.48 1.66 8.44 6.13 7.52 4.69 5.65 8.91 5.90
Amman Jordan 2.75 10.00 9.82 8.97 6.01 1.06 8.13 3.17 5.71 9.64 8.61 5.83 4.93 5.17 3.51 9.28 9.03 5.92
Belgrade Serbia 3.84 2.33 6.98 6.07 4.56 5.35 6.32 5.59 7.10 9.28 8.97 8.19 5.05 8.25 2.23 7.40 6.98 5.94
Hanoi Vietnam 2.69 7.77 8.49 9.70 7.22 9.94 8.19 1.79 5.83 2.45 8.43 7.34 8.73 8.01 8.60 4.14 9.28 5.97
Warsaw Poland 4.14 4.32 4.68 5.77 2.93 8.19 5.95 6.68 7.16 8.07 6.80 8.55 6.98 9.09 2.75 6.44 9.15 6.02
Phnom Penh Cambodia 2.45 8.79 7.04 7.77 8.79 4.20 7.52 4.74 1.48 1.00 8.97 9.09 9.21 9.46 8.95 5.95 6.13 6.06
Jeddah Saudi Arabia 3.05 10.00 7.77 2.63 5.65 2.57 9.58 2.99 6.80 8.79 6.01 3.30 6.38 5.05 7.55 9.64 9.46 6.08
Riyadh Saudi Arabia 4.38 10.00 7.77 2.63 3.11 2.57 10.00 7.46 6.80 8.79 6.01 3.30 5.41 6.50 7.55 9.52 9.46 6.08
Sofia Bulgaria 1.48 2.57 5.77 3.66 7.04 5.77 6.74 6.38 3.66 7.46 8.01 8.25 9.09 8.79 3.16 6.56 5.53 6.11
Beijing China 8.61 8.13 8.67 7.95 4.20 3.11 8.91 7.90 6.50 1.24 1.66 8.44 6.07 8.91 4.69 5.77 8.91 6.13
Beirut Lebanon 3.48 8.97 7.77 4.68 6.92 2.33 6.50 3.96 9.21 6.56 9.88 1.54 8.07 4.81 8.89 9.34 5.89 6.13
Cape Town South Africa 1.54 4.99 2.63 5.47 8.43 2.15 7.83 8.37 2.87 9.88 7.52 8.91 7.34 4.56 8.42 4.93 6.92 6.15
Kathmandu Nepal 4.50 9.58 9.52 8.19 3.60 4.14 8.85 5.35 1.54 8.34 9.82 8.43 8.37 6.98 9.65 6.19 6.50 6.19
Bangkok Thailand 6.44 7.77 5.47 9.40 6.68 3.66 6.62 3.48 4.93 1.12 6.13 9.15 9.03 9.52 3.40 5.23 6.44 6.19
Milan Italy 8.01 6.01 7.83 4.20 7.40 6.86 6.26 6.26 9.03 7.04 8.01 2.51 6.38 2.39 1.99 7.58 3.72 6.31
Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam 4.68 7.40 9.46 9.52 8.19 4.87 8.37 1.97 5.83 2.09 8.43 7.34 9.03 7.83 8.60 4.32 9.34 6.56
Guangzhou China 8.41 7.22 4.74 7.64 5.35 7.22 8.61 7.89 6.50 1.85 1.66 8.44 6.62 8.49 4.69 7.52 8.67 6.66
Shenzhen China 8.84 2.33 5.53 7.64 5.95 8.25 7.77 7.51 6.50 1.85 1.66 8.44 7.34 8.01 4.69 6.07 8.61 6.68
Antananarivo Madagascar 8.73 5.35 10.00 9.03 8.97 3.36 7.64 8.07 1.00 1.42 9.82 8.13 5.95 6.32 9.88 4.08 6.68 6.69
Kuala Lumpur Malaysia 7.70 4.99 5.65 5.23 8.73 5.11 8.73 3.66 5.11 2.39 6.01 6.07 7.77 5.65 4.45 8.37 7.28 6.71
Bucharest Romania 8.43 5.53 6.50 8.43 4.14 5.11 5.65 5.53 4.26 6.50 9.21 7.22 6.80 8.19 6.03 8.01 5.89 6.74
Budapest Hungary 4.08 5.53 5.95 1.85 8.13 6.44 5.53 6.74 4.99 6.38 7.58 8.49 5.29 9.03 3.75 7.70 8.19 6.76
Nairobi Kenya 5.95 7.58 8.73 8.73 8.49 4.14 5.89 4.20 1.24 3.48 8.79 8.31 8.19 8.85 9.53 4.87 7.64 7.02
Abidjan Ivory Coast 1.97 6.50 8.07 9.34 8.37 5.23 7.28 1.00 1.66 5.29 8.79 10.00 9.64 10.00 9.59 8.13 8.37 7.06
Quito Ecuador 7.89 3.90 1.66 8.91 7.77 5.77 6.19 6.01 2.63 6.13 9.52 6.01 6.56 6.56 8.01 6.86 6.50 7.10
Buenos Aires Argentina 8.34 8.49 4.08 7.22 7.40 3.25 4.62 4.38 2.93 7.46 9.64 6.44 6.45 6.07 3.45 6.74 7.89 7.11
Bogotá Colombia 5.11 8.85 9.76 9.82 9.34 7.89 7.22 3.11 2.09 7.95 6.74 1.79 8.01 6.07 4.62 3.96 7.64 7.16
Lima Peru 4.38 9.58 8.79 8.13 8.55 9.21 8.79 1.24 1.42 5.89 6.13 4.32 8.49 8.67 8.83 5.29 6.98 7.16
Brussels Belgium 7.77 4.32 5.65 6.01 6.13 8.91 4.32 5.29 9.70 9.76 4.26 9.03 4.56 8.49 1.64 6.13 3.72 7.18
Rio de Janeiro Brazil 6.67 3.60 8.97 8.25 9.34 3.55 7.10 3.54 2.45 9.03 8.25 1.91 7.65 3.96 4.04 6.98 6.98 7.18
Athens Greece 8.01 6.32 3.36 5.77 6.92 2.99 6.44 4.44 3.72 9.82 9.94 1.00 7.89 4.20 7.66 8.07 5.11 7.19
Istanbul Turkey 3.23 7.22 6.68 8.37 8.85 4.81 7.34 3.30 6.56 8.13 8.43 6.19 6.38 7.52 7.72 9.40 6.13 7.19
Medellín Colombia 7.52 5.53 8.55 8.07 9.52 7.89 6.80 1.91 2.09 7.95 6.74 1.79 7.52 5.23 4.62 3.84 6.13 7.21
Moscow Russia 8.31 8.13 1.97 7.64 7.70 7.89 5.83 3.72 1.97 2.21 7.28 8.73 8.55 9.40 3.28 6.50 8.37 7.24
Mexico City Mexico 7.83 10.00 9.34 9.58 9.34 3.90 6.56 2.81 4.14 2.87 6.32 4.44 7.46 6.74 8.31 7.95 6.50 7.26
Colombo Sri Lanka 9.64 7.28 6.32 9.28 3.96 3.66 7.89 4.93 2.21 4.14 8.61 9.88 9.82 9.21 4.74 9.03 5.89 7.29
Guatemala City Guatemala 7.10 5.35 6.98 8.49 9.46 8.49 7.46 5.41 2.99 1.72 8.01 1.06 9.58 6.92 9.42 8.55 5.47 7.31
San Salvador El Salvador 1.12 7.77 9.64 7.70 9.94 2.33 8.31 1.36 4.20 6.86 9.40 8.61 9.76 8.61 7.60 7.22 8.67 7.37
Seoul South Korea 9.40 7.22 3.90 4.20 3.90 4.81 6.86 9.21 9.09 3.48 1.30 9.34 9.03 9.70 1.70 8.61 10.00 7.52
Bangalore India 9.03 6.92 9.58 9.52 7.16 4.50 9.15 2.87 4.87 1.30 6.74 9.76 7.10 8.97 9.24 8.91 9.76 7.61
Kolkata India 9.88 7.22 2.03 9.76 6.98 4.50 9.34 3.90 4.87 1.97 6.74 9.76 8.01 8.19 9.24 8.79 9.70 7.84
Jakarta Indonesia 9.28 9.58 9.03 9.15 7.83 2.15 7.58 4.26 1.18 6.26 7.28 5.41 5.41 7.52 9.01 7.83 8.67 7.84
Casablanca Morocco 8.37 10.00 7.77 8.31 7.10 2.75 7.70 4.14 2.69 8.25 7.28 6.38 7.58 5.71 9.30 9.58 6.98 7.89
Algiers Algeria 8.49 5.35 4.99 8.67 6.80 2.75 8.43 8.67 3.48 8.25 6.32 1.24 8.37 5.47 7.90 9.46 8.19 7.95
Johannesburg South Africa 3.54 6.92 2.63 4.20 9.70 1.72 8.67 5.47 2.87 9.94 7.52 8.91 7.64 9.34 8.42 4.62 7.46 7.98
São Paulo Brazil 8.13 8.61 8.97 7.89 9.03 6.50 6.07 1.60 2.45 9.03 8.25 1.91 8.19 6.38 4.04 6.68 7.28 8.15
Yaoundé Cameroon 9.21 8.13 8.85 6.92 6.62 8.19 8.01 4.68 1.60 7.64 8.97 9.94 9.94 7.52 9.47 5.41 3.72 8.21
Mumbai India 9.94 9.58 2.51 9.64 7.40 3.66 9.09 1.66 4.87 1.60 6.74 9.76 9.34 9.76 9.24 8.73 9.82 8.37
Caracas Venezuela 5.76 7.58 6.11 5.29 10.00 3.36 6.92 7.77 7.04 8.38 10.00 2.35 9.70 6.19 3.57 7.10 7.89 8.39
Damascus Syria 9.82 8.25 7.77 7.28 9.58 1.00 8.07 8.73 1.79 5.05 9.52 5.65 9.46 6.07 8.07 9.88 5.23 8.66
Manila Philippines 9.76 9.21 8.31 8.79 9.76 5.35 7.40 2.09 1.42 6.38 6.19 5.35 9.40 8.49 9.36 4.20 7.28 8.92
New Delhi India 9.58 4.32 4.08 7.16 8.25 2.75 8.97 5.65 4.87 4.38 6.74 9.76 8.73 9.82 9.24 8.67 9.82 8.98
Karachi Pakistan 6.98 9.58 9.40 9.88 9.82 1.72 9.94 1.54 2.75 6.13 9.21 4.26 9.28 8.79 9.77 9.82 9.40 9.00
Dhaka Bangladesh 10.00 6.32 7.10 9.09 9.15 7.89 9.52 1.42 3.54 4.81 8.01 7.58 9.88 7.89 9.94 8.25 7.46 9.06
Tehran Iran 8.67 9.21 6.62 8.55 9.40 3.66 8.25 4.50 6.98 8.55 7.52 1.30 7.77 6.07 7.95 9.76 9.15 9.10
Cairo Egypt 9.52 8.05 7.45 8.61 8.67 1.24 9.70 1.48 5.05 9.15 9.58 9.82 8.65 7.64 8.71 9.70 7.76 9.53
Dakar Senegal 9.09 8.49 8.07 6.56 8.61 1.85 9.40 4.08 1.30 10.00 8.79 9.28 8.37 9.58 9.71 8.19 5.71 9.58
Lagos Nigeria 7.64 8.97 4.93 9.21 9.64 6.86 9.88 1.85 2.27 9.34 9.21 9.52 9.52 9.94 10.00 9.15 6.98 9.95
Kabul Afghanistan 5.55 9.65 8.84 9.94 9.88 2.14 9.82 7.45 2.34 9.15 8.80 9.50 9.86 9.88 9.54 9.94 9.53 9.98
Baghdad Iraq 8.91 8.61 9.88 7.46 8.07 1.54 9.76 5.17 9.15 9.70 9.40 5.29 7.83 9.21 8.77 10.00 9.09 10.00
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Methodology

To select the cities in the ranking, we studied 500 locations based on data relating to the cities themselves, pollution, finance and the citizens. Within these we analysed criteria such as traffic, security and mental health issues. This determined a ranking of 150 cities, which highlights the most and least stressful cities with available data on all factors relating to the study.

To make a comparable quantification of how stressful each city is, we made a three-step evaluation of the data. First, we ranked the raw data from highest to lowest value and then we awarded a standard score based on their ranking in the following manner:

Scorei = 1 + 9 * ((xi-xmin) / (xmax-xmin))

A low score indicates a low level of stress, with each increasing number indicating a higher level of stress for this factor. A score of 1 represents the least amount of stress possible and 10 indicates the most. Secondly, all umbrella categories (City, Pollution, Finance and People) were given an overall score based on each sub-category. To create a comprehensive ranking, the Final Score is a weighted average of each individual umbrella category, as follows:

Final Scorei = 40% Cityi + 10% Pollutioni + 25% Financei + 25% Peoplei

Finally, we standardized the data to have a true final score. Note that for categories such as Green Spaces and Sunshine Hours, having a “high score” means that the city has a lower incidence of these phenomena. I.E. a city with a score of 10 for Sunshine Hours means that they rarely experience sunny days.

City

Density: The average density of the city (population per km2). Sources: CIA: The World Factbook (population size), Google Maps (area of the city km2) and last official census number available (population size).

Green Spaces: Using Google Maps API service we were able to calculate the percentage of public green spaces inside the city limits.

Public Transport: Satisfaction with public transportation (percentage). Sources: Eurostat EU perception survey, surveys of individual countries, and surveys from peer-reviewed journals.

Traffic-Congestion Levels: How congested a cities’ roads are. Sources: TomTom congestion level, Inrix Global Traffic Scorecard.

Perception of Security: Weighted official average rate of theft and murders in the city. Then this was weighted with the local Perception of security per capita . Source: United Nations, official data from the city’s Police Department when available and polling of safety perception.

Sunshine Hours: Average percentage of sunshine hours in the city per year. Sources: WeatherBase.com, local meteorology station reports.

Pollution

Air Pollution: Annual mean, ug/m3. Source: WHO

Noise Pollution: Survey of the perception of noise on the city based on the Mimi Hearing Index 2017.

Light Pollution: Mean light levels in the country. Source: lightpollutionmap.info

Finance

Unemployment: Unemployment rate (percentage) in the city. Sources: local official reports and OECD.

Debt Per Capita: Weighted average of external debt per capita and a debt score of debt ranking agencies (S and P, Fitch, Moody’s, Dagong), as well as national and local official data of debt per capita.

Social Security: Took into consideration unemployment insurance, healthcare and retirement. Weighted with the average between percentage of GDP spent on healthcare (Source:WHO) and Gini coefficient (a measurement of inequality in wages/income in economics) for wage inequality (Source: wider.unu.edu (world income inequality database)).

Family Purchasing Power: Monthly average level of household salary per city, average price of living (cost of fast food, dinner out, public transport (monthly), rent (85 m2 furnished accommodation) Sources: Average salary surveys and average expenses surveys.

People

Mental Health: Weighted average of suicide rates, awareness and coverage including the rate of psychologists working in the mental health sector per capita. Sources: WHO indicators and official national and local data where available.

Physical Health: The percentage of GDP spent on health care, levels of obesity and the weighted average of ratio of live births (WHO defined term for a birth where the baby survives) and percentage of births attended by skilled professional. Sources: WHO indicators.

Gender Equality: Labor force participation rate (15 and older) and gender gap report from the world economic forum, percentage. Sources: United Nations Human Development Report.

Race Equality: Weighted average of inequality rate based on ethnicities and languages. Sources: World Bank Ethnic Inequality report.